Texas Dominates Milken's New Best Performing Cities Index

Texas metropolitan regions hold down four of the top five and nine of the top 16 places in Milken's new Best Performing Cities Index, released this morning. The rankings were authored by previous New Geography Contributor Ross DeVol, director of Regional Economics at Milken.

It's refreshing to see a set of rankings attempting to take an objective, hard data-based look at comparative analysis. The Milken Rankings are a combination of job growth, wage and salary growth, high-tech GDP growth, and high-tech location quotients (see page 8 of the report).

A region's industry mix plays a big role in its ranking; you can see energy-centric regions scoring well. But remember that these rankings also explicitly factor in high tech growth and high tech concentration.

Regions that avoided real estate inflation and those maintaining what they have or simply avoiding rapid decline tend to score better.

“‘Best performing’ sometimes means retaining what you have,” said DeVol. “In a period of recession, the index highlights metros that have adapted to weather the storm. As we move forward in a recovery that still lacks jobs, metros will be further tested in their ability to sustain themselves.”

The rankings include 324 regions, breaking them into two groups based on region size.

You can view the full lists at Milken's interactive rankings website, and the full report includes analyses of the top large and small places.

Here's the top and bottom 25 Large places:

Top 25 Large Regions Bottom 25 Large Regions
2009 rank 2008 rank Metropolitan area 2009 rank 2008 rank Metropolitan area
1 4 Austin-Round Rock, TX MSA 176 97 Bradenton-Sarasota-Venice, FL MSA
2 13 Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood, TX MSA 177 150 Birmingham-Hoover, AL MSA
3 3 Salt Lake City, UT MSA 178 144 Memphis, TN-MS-AR MSA
4 7 McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX MSA 179 117 Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL MD
5 16 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA 180 120 Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL MSA
6 21 Durham, NC MSA 181 183 Spartanburg, SC MSA
7 9 Olympia, WA MSA 182 178 Wilmington, DE-MD-NJ MD
8 5 Huntsville, AL MSA 183 189 Dayton, OH MSA
9 14 Lafayette, LA MSA 184 73 Merced, CA MSA
10 2 Raleigh-Cary, NC MSA 185 191 Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC MSA
11 15 San Antonio, TX MSA 186 193 Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH MSA
12 29 Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MD 187 170 Providence-New Bed.-Fall Riv., RI-MA MSA
13 23 Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX MD 188 186 South Bend-Mishawaka, IN-MI MSA
14 37 El Paso, TX MSA 189 185 Kalamazoo-Portage, MI MSA
15 45 Wichita, KS MSA 190 197 Canton-Massillon, OH MSA
16 88 Corpus Christi, TX MSA 191 192 Ann Arbor, MI MSA
17 17 Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA MD 192 187 Atlantic City, NJ MSA
18 40 Baton Rouge, LA MSA 193 188 Youngstown-Warren-Board., OH-PA MSA
19 72 Tulsa, OK MSA 194 190 Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI MSA
20 20 Greeley, CO MSA 195 196 Lansing-East Lansing, MI MSA
21 8 Tacoma, WA MD 196 199 Holland-Grand Haven, MI MSA
22 48 Fort Collins-Loveland, CO MSA 197 198 Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI MD
23 54 Little Rock-N. Little Rock-Conway, AR MSA 198 194 Toledo, OH MSA
24 67 Shreveport-Bossier City, LA MSA 199 200 Detroit-Livonia-Dearborn, MI MD
25 41 Wash.-Arl.-Alex., DC-VA-MD-WV MD 200 195 Flint, MI MSA

And the top and bottom 25 Small regions:

Top 25 Small Regions Bottom 25 Small Regions
2009 rank 2008 rank Metropolitan area 2009 rank 2008 rank Metropolitan area
1 1 Midland, TX MSA 100 110 Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ MSA
2 7 Longview, TX MSA 101 94 Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH MSA
3 5 Grand Junction, CO MSA 102 114 Williamsport, PA MSA
4 26 Tyler, TX MSA 103 117 Mansfield, OH MSA
5 10 Odessa, TX MSA 104 85 Jackson, TN MSA
6 29 Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA MSA 105 115 Muncie, IN MSA
7 15 Bismarck, ND MSA 106 63 Flagstaff, AZ MSA
8 6 Warner Robins, GA MSA 107 112 Racine, WI MSA
9 11 Las Cruces, NM MSA 108 70 Dothan, AL MSA
10 17 Fargo, ND-MN MSA 109 105 Sheboygan, WI MSA
11 45 Pascagoula, MS MSA 110 97 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA
12 23 Sioux Falls, SD MSA 111 100 Altoona, PA MSA
13 8 Bellingham, WA MSA 112 95 Terre Haute, IN MSA
14 38 College Station-Bryan, TX MSA 113 59 Redding, CA MSA
15 2 Coeur d'Alene, ID MSA 114 122 Lima, OH MSA
16 12 Cheyenne, WY MSA 115 75 Janesville, WI MSA
17 81 Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR MSA 116 96 Elkhart-Goshen, IN MSA
18 27 Waco, TX MSA 117 119 Anderson, SC MSA
19 16 Houma-Bayou Cane-Thibodaux, LA MSA 118 113 Dalton, GA MSA
20 44 Laredo, TX MSA 119 120 Springfield, OH MSA
21 40 Abilene, TX MSA 120 84 Lewiston-Auburn, ME MSA
22 25 Iowa City, IA MSA 121 116 Muskegon-Norton Shores, MI MSA
23 72 Glens Falls, NY MSA 122 121 Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI MSA
24 24 Billings, MT MSA 123 123 Battle Creek, MI MSA
25 64 Ithaca, NY MSA 124 124 Jackson, MI MSA

High Speed Rail: Not One Big Happy Family

California High Speed Rail Commission member Rod Diridon is chafing at all of the competition that has been created by the billions committed by the federal government to high speed rail. According to a New York Times report, he called many of the proposed systems around the country “vultures” and told an American Public Transportation Association meeting “If I can borrow a term from our good friends in labor, they are a 'Do not patronize… And I cannot say it any stronger”. Consistent with that view, Diridon urged that the federal government be asked to commit all of its current $8 billion in funds to the California project.

There may be even more disturbing news for Diridon: new competition has appeared on the horizon. A report (page 23) by the David Suzuki Foundation and the Pembina Institute (both of Canada) suggests that:

“Using the Edmonton – Calgary example as a template, judgmentally adjusted for distance, geography and relative land values, we estimate that a full high-speed link would cost about $4 billion. If the cost were shared equally between Canada and the United States, the Canadian total would be about $2 billion.”

Why stop at that? How about getting a quarter each from Zimbabwe and the Honduras? It would certainly make it less expensive for Canadian taxpayers. Perhaps our friends to the North simply made a typographical error, but perhaps not. Stranger things have been proposed.

Urban Youth Deserve Chance to Hear About Service Academies

Here’s a disturbing thought as Veterans Day approaches: Some teachers and administrators of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) refuse to allow visits to high school campuses by representatives of the service academies that train young officers.

The service academies have all earned reputations as fine academic institutions that go further on training future officers. There is the U.S. Military Academy; the U.S. Naval Academy; the U.S. Air Force Academy; the U.S. Coast Guard Academy; and the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. They all offer full scholarships and require five years of service after graduation.

Candidates must meet demanding standards on academics, physical fitness, and extra-curricular activity. They are generally required to secure a nomination from a member of the U.S. Congress, the president, or the vice president.

The merit involved in gaining a nomination, along with the geographic apportionment by Congressional districts, offers the chance to draw candidates from across the socio-economic spectrum. Graduation from a service academy offers young officers from every corner of society the chance to reach significant rank.

Measure that against the LAUSD teachers and administrators who deem a career as a military officer to be unworthy of a hearing at high school campuses. Some will tell you that they object because our wars are fought by too many young persons of color. Others view the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy on gays in the military as contemptible prejudice.

These objections are absurd. Our civilian leadership decides the actions and policies of the military. War or peace? That’s in the hands of the president and Congress. Gays in the military? Same story.

It’s true that our military stands ready for war if so directed by the civilian leadership of our democracy. It’s also notable that never in the course of history has any institution possessed the war-making might of the U.S. military. And never has an institution in such a position yielded so loyally to the will of unarmed leadership. This sense of duty has lasted through good and bad, gallant victories and horrific mishaps. Never has there been a serious challenge to civilian oversight.

All of that is overlooked by LAUSD teachers and administrators—and their boycotts have an effect. Some members of Congress who represent Los Angeles have chronic difficulty in filling the number of nominations they are allowed to make to the service academies each year. They aren’t coming up short on qualified candidates. They can’t even get that far—not enough young achievers know about the possibilities of the service academies.

It’s time that someone gave these alleged educators who forbid any discussion of service academies a lesson on the honorable history of our military. They should also be reminded that it will require representatives from throughout our society—rich and poor, all colors and creeds, town and country—to keep this line of honorable service intact.

Keeping knowledge of the service academies away from youngsters in our city is nothing short of demographic censorship. It is time for LAUSD to put an end to the practice.

Forgetting Middle Skill Jobs

A new report from Skills2Compete attempts to address a national problem which continues to diminish our country’s competitive edge in the global economy. The loss of middle-skill jobs and the lack of qualified workers to fill the remaining jobs are major barriers, not only to our economic recovery, but also to our ability to sustain a high quality of life for succeeding generations. The report concludes that a new state policy is needed to align the workforce and education and training to better meet California’s labor market demand. Accomplishing that goal means improving basic skills in the workforce and ensuring that skills training and education is available to anyone post high school. A major policy change is a good start, but the report does not go far enough in addressing what is needed to restore the importance of middle-skill jobs to the economy.

Part of the challenge lies with the current mindset of the public education system and parents who value and push college as the only track to a well-paying and satisfying job. This leaves out a large segment of youth and the workforce who are not college bound and who need training and skills and encouragement to fill middle-skill jobs. Where does a high school student get vocational training or learn about middle skill jobs? Remember woodworking? Metal shop? Drafting?

Vocational education was the name of the program that provided these courses, but now it’s labeled “career tech” and the classes are no longer available in most public high schools. As a result, students have little awareness of these careers. A few years ago, while conducting focus groups of freshman and sophomore students, I was stunned to learn that many did not know what an electrician, welder, auto technician, or HVAC technician did and worse, they disdained those jobs because they thought they were “dirty” and didn’t pay well. This doesn’t bode well for a functioning society or economy. Who will service our cars, fix our plumbing, and build machinery to process our food or the solar panels to heat our homes? It will take more than a policy change to transform awareness, perceptions and values about middle-skill jobs.

The last economic boom was sustained, not by wealth created by high value manufacturing jobs, but by unbridled consumer spending particularly for houses and retail goods. If we want that standard of living to return, then we must address the greater challenge of how to grow and sustain an economy driven by production of goods instead of consumption. Along with a paradigm shift in our educational system that recognizes the importance of middle skill jobs, we must change our attitudes about work and what creates value not only for our economy but our worth to society.

We continue to hold on to arcane principles and entitled expectations about work that are increasingly less relevant in a fast-paced globalized world. We are not prepared to re-invent ourselves and our careers in terms of continuous learning of new skills and training either for middle-skill or knowledge jobs. That is what is ultimately needed to succeed in the rapidly changing workplace.

Leslie Parks has spent over ten years as a practitioner and consultant in the fields of economic and workforce development. She recently served as Director of Downtown Management and Industrial Development for the San Jose Redevelopment Agency until September 23, 2009 when she and 24 colleagues were laid off due to significant budget cuts. Leslie is now preparing for yet another career in the 21st Century workplace.

Unemployment Rate Nowhere Near White House Predictions

Check out this chart from geoff at Innocent Bystanders plotting the actual recent unemployment rates against the predicted stimulus-reduced rate from Obama's recovery team:

Google's chart interface is one of the easiest ways to explore unemployment data, allowing for easy comparisons for any state or county.

The Fog of Stimulus

The news is full of stories about the the impact of the ARRA on job creation, including this one from the The Wall Street Journal about a shoe store owner who created or saved nine jobs with less than $900.

In the story, the Army Corps of Engineers spent $889.60 buying boots from shoe store owner Buddy Moore of Kentucky. Because the boots were purchased with ARRA funds, the Corps asked Buddy to report how many jobs the boot order had “created or saved.” He and his daughter struggled with paperwork, online forms, and a “helpline,” only to make a wild guess 15 minutes before the reporting deadline that they had created nine jobs.

Though not completely spelled out in the article, the impression is that Buddy and his daughter reasoned that they had created or saved nine jobs, because their boots had “helped nine members of the Corps to work.”

This sort of misreporting is now fodder for ARRA opponents, and is the last thing that the White House wanted on its hands. In July the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued this memorandum and created a series of PowerPoints and PDFs intended to assist ARRA recipients with their reporting.

These documents do not appear to be currently available on the White House website, but you can find the Google doc here. This list (also not directly available) shows that the Army Corps of Engineers is and was considered a primary recipient. Given its status, it is the one required in the initial PowerPoint to report the “job creation narrative and number.”

As a prime recipient, the Corps should have been briefed on the fact that the key data issue to avoid was: “Significant Reporting Errors: (which are) instances where required data is not reported accurately and such erroneous reporting results in significant risk that the public will be misled or confused by the recipient report in question.”

They also would have had to listen in to this presentation on data quality, which stresses that prime recipients are fully responsible for the quality of the data. The Corps could have caught the reporting mistake by running a simple math equation, which would have indicated that the shoe store had created a full-time job for every $98.84.

If this were true, only $2 billion (administered by Buddy Moore) would have reemployed every single unemployed person in the US, a savings of $785 billion to the American taxpayer.

In the end, it turns out that because the payment made by the Corps was less than $25,000, the Corps (while responsible for reporting the total number and amount of small sub-awards less than $25,000) was not required to have Buddy Moore report anything.

Prime recipients are still responsible to report a total jobs creation estimate based off what sub-recipients and vendors do with the funds they disperse. To do that, the Corps could have called up Buddy and asked him to estimate the extra hours he worked for that specific order, and calculated Full Time Equivalents using those hour(s) by “… adding the total hours worked by all employees in the quarter, and dividing by the total hours in a full-time schedule.”

In this case, let’s assume he worked an extra hour filling the boot order. A quarter-year full-time job would take 520 hours to complete, so he would report that the Corps funds created 1/520 of a quarterly FTE (.001923 FTE), or just about 2/1000th’s of a full-time job for a quarter of the year. The shoe store’s estimate of job creation, therefore, was 4,680 times too big.

The OMB’s method of job reporting is, by our estimation, a good way of quantifying job creation. The problem, highlighted by the WSJ article, is that average businesses and recipients have had a hard time understanding what data was needed in the first place, and then what they were supposed to do with it.

Mark Beauchamp is a customer service representative at Economic Modeling Specialists Inc., an Idaho-based data and economic analysis firm.

Illustration by Mark Beauchamp.

Smart Growth Places 3rd in Houston Mayor's Race

Houston city councilman Peter Brown, unique as a devotee of smart growth (compact development) in this city of light land use regulation, placed third in the mayoral election yesterday. Brown had long advocated Portland-style smart growth land use and development policies for the city of Houston and looked likely to garner the most votes in the four-way race. Brown, an architect and urban planner, spent more than $3 million of his own money in the election.

The Houston metropolitan area distinguished itself by not experiencing the profligate credit and smart growth related house price bubble and, as a result experienced little decline in house prices and largely avoided the Great Recession. Houston is the largest municipality in the nation without zoning, however, with land regulation being principally limited to private covenants between land owners. Other Texas metropolitan areas also averted the housing bubble and the Great Recession, because their generally more liberal approaches to land regulation did not produce the price distortions that occurred in more highly regulated metropolitan areas as in California, Florida, Arizona, Nevada, the Pacific Northwest and the Northeast.

Republicans Sweep from Reston to Roanoke

Republicans dominated the Virginia elections, sweeping all three statewide offices and gaining at least three House of Delegates seats. Former Attorney General Bob McDonnell crushed state Sen. Creigh Deeds by a margin of 59-41% and beat him in 113 of the commonwealth’s 134 counties and cities.

McDonnell dominated every part of the state from the subdivisions of Northern Virginia to the Piedmont to Richmond to the Northern Neck to the Shenandoah Valley to coal country to Southside to Tidewater. It wasn’t even close.

In fact, it was a much bigger and wider sweep than most pundits realize. Attorney General-elect Ken Cuccinelli is “the most conservative statewide official in modern VA history, at least since segregation,” according to a Tweet by Politico’s Jonathan Martin last night.

Democratic House incumbents in Fairfax and Loudoun counties got ousted in moderate, suburban districts. In McLean, Margi Vanderhye, a center-left delegate known for her hard work and commitment to serious issues, lost to the woman who ran Tom DeLay and Scooter Libby’s legal defense funds.

Ultimately it came down to two factors: First, the Democratic base just did not show up and did not care about Deeds, and the GOP base was extremely energized to win back control. Second, McDonnell ran a great campaign with independents and Deeds alienated them.

A few key points:

The Fairfax Streak Lives On: Since 1969, whichever candidate wins vote-rich Fairfax County wins the state. McDonnell kept the streak alive with a 50.8-49.2 win in this suburban county outside Washington.

Deeds Forgot New Independents: As I explained in Politico yesterday, Deeds alienated independents by focusing on cultural issues rather than roads and schools, and consequently lost Loudoun and Prince William counties. It’s the sixth straight election where whoever wins those counties wins the state.

Home Bases: Both candidates performed well in their respective bases. Deeds posted 64% in his native Bath County, where Barack Obama only garnered 48%. McDonnell also put up 64% in his hometown of Virginia Beach, which is actually surprisingly low number considering his statewide tally.

The “Who Cares?” Effect: A lot of the Democratic coalition did not show up. In Charlottesville, Democrats suffered more than a 50% drop-off in turnout from 2008 while Republicans saw only a 36% loss. In Prius-crazy Arlington, Dems suffered a 54% loss rate relative to ’08 while the GOP lost a third.

The Albemarle Effect: If Democrats can’t win liberal Albemarle County surrounding UVA, they might as well give up. This fast-growing, uber-educated, fairly affluent county was trending Democrat as the college enclave of Charlottesville spilled beyond its borders. McDonnell won it with 51%.

Coal County Creigh?: Deeds was supposed to win the F-150 Democrats, but he did even worse than Obama in the hardscrabble southwestern counties that are conservative but UMW-influenced. In ancestrally Democratic Buchanan County, Tim Kaine won 52%, Obama received 47%, and Deeds only got 36%. Mark Warner, a telecom executive from Alexandria, got 66%, almost double Deeds.

Suburban Shutdown for Democrats: One of the major planks of the Obama coalition was suburban and exurban independents. These voters did not show up on Tuesday, dealing significant loses to Democratic House delegates in Oakton, Ashburn, and McLean, and to strong challengers in Sterling and Mt. Vernon.

Black Voter Apathy: Deeds was never popular in the black community. In Brunswick County, a peanut-growing, majority-black county in Southside, Obama received 63% and Deeds pulled together a losing 49.5%. Deeds could barely even hold Newport News, where he got a paltry 50.3%.

What it Means for 2010: Rep. Tom Periello, of the 5th District that stretches from liberal Charlottesville to conservative Southside, must be shaking in his boots after seeing McDonnell dominate in Southside – and ever win Albemarle! – last night. This was always a tenuous seat, but it just got shakier.

Reps. Gerry Connolly of Fairfax County (D-11) and Glenn Nye of Tidewater (D-02) are probably OK since they can take assurance that Deeds was a weak candidate, although hometown boy McDonnell will certainly campaign for Nye’s challenger. Rep. Frank Wolf of Loudoun (R-10) is probably sleeping easy.

Ultimately, trying to analyze the Virginia electoral map from last night is somewhat pointless since it was a well-rounded rout from Ashburn to Abingdon. The interesting points are not in whether or not McDonnell won certain counties, but by how much.

Riding Out the Recession in the Forty Strongest Metropolitan Economies

A few days ago BusinessWeek released a list of the top 40 metropolitan economies based on data compiled at the Brookings Institution's Metromonitor project. But, as many old media sites tend to do, they've locked the list behind a slow-loading slide show in a cheap attempt to drum up page views. Many of the commenters to the original article couldn't even find the list.

So, in the interest of usability, here's the top 40 in boring list format:

1 San Antonio, TX
2 Austin-Round Rock, TX
3 Oklahoma City, OK
4 Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR
5 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX
6 Baton Rouge, LA
7 Tulsa, OK
8 Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA
9 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX
10 El Paso, TX
11 Jackson, MS
12 McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX
13 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV
14 Columbia, SC
15 Pittsburgh, PA
16 Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA
17 Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA
18 Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC
19 Honolulu, HI
20 Rochester, NY
21 Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY
22 Scranton-Wilkes-Barre, PA
23 Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC
24 Colorado Springs, CO
25 Madison, WI
26 Albuquerque, NM
27 Syracuse, NY
28 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY
29 Kansas City, MO-KS
30 Raleigh-Cary, NC
31 Ogden-Clearfield, UT
32 Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH (tied)
32 New Haven-Milford, CT (tied)
33 Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT
34 Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO (tied)
34 Baltimore-Towson, MD (tied)
35 Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY
36 Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT
37 Indianapolis-Carmel, IN
38 Memphis, TN-MS-AR

Trends? Looks like energy economies, state capitals, university-heavy towns, generally affordable regions that avoided the housing boom, and a few old industrial centers that suffered the brunt of decline 25 years ago and now may be positioned for an up-swing.

Here's an explanation of the list methodology:

The Brookings Institution ranked the 100 largest metros by averaging the ranks for four key indicators: employment change, unemployment change, gross metropolitan product, and home price change. Employment was measured by the change from the peak quarter for each metro to the second quarter of 2009. The peak was the quarter in which the metro had the most jobs during the past five years. Unemployment was ranked by measuring the percentage-point change from the first quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2009. Gross metropolitan product was measured from the peak quarter to the second quarter of 2009. And the ranking of home prices compared the second quarter of 2009 to the previous quarter. The employment data were provided by Moody's, the unemployment data were collected from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the home price index came from the Federal Housing Finance Agency.

Source: The Brookings Institution's MetroMonitor

New York Migration Study, the State Continues to Lose Residents

The Empire Center for New State Policy has released “Empire State Exodus,” which details New York’s continuing loss of people and their incomes to other states. The report was authored by E. J. McMahon, senior fellow with the Manhattan Institute and director of the Empire Center and me.

Since the beginning of the decade, New York has experienced a net domestic migration loss of more than 1,500,000, the largest loss in the nation. The extent of this loss is illustrated by the fact that Katrina/Rita/defective dike ravaged Louisiana lost a smaller share of its population than New York, which also led in relative terms.

The report uses the latest Census Bureau and Internal Revenue Service (IRS) data to examine how many New Yorkers have left the state, where they have gone and how much income they have taken with them. It includes detailed breakdowns of population migration patterns at a regional and county level.

More than 85% of the domestic migration loss was from the New York City region (combined statistical area) of New York State and more than 70% of the loss was from New York City itself. The data shows a continuing exodus from the city, to the suburbs and to elsewhere in the nation.

The annual net loss of New Yorkers to other states has ranged from a high of nearly 250,000 people in 2005 to a low of 126,000 last year, when moves nationwide slowed down sharply along with the economy.

Households moving out of New York State had average incomes 13 percent higher than those moving into New York during the most recent year for which such data are available. In 2006-07 alone, the migration flow out of New York drained $4.3 billion in taxpayer income from the state. New York taxpayers moving to other states had average incomes of $57,144, while those
moving into New York averaged $50,533 as of 2007, according to the report.

“Even with its large domestic migration losses, New York’s total population has grown slightly since 2000, thanks to a large influx of immigrants from foreign countries,” the report says. “But New York’s share of U.S. population is still shrinking. A continuation of the domestic migration trends highlighted here will translate into slower economic growth and diminishing political influence in the future.”

The report is available at